288 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION entirely what he is made by education: from which some of them inferred, quite legitimately, that as the character of the State depends on the kind of education its citizens receive, the commit- ment of education to the State is an essential condition of any thorough-going reform to Society. Those who regarded the reaction of the mind on its sensory experience as all-important, on the other hand, while not ignoring the social consequences of education, laid the main stress on the nature of the individual undergoing training, and made the primary aim of education not the production of the perfect citizen but the production of the perfect man. The two points of view, as soon became evident, were not easy to reconcile in practice; but however much they might seem to conflict the circumstances of the age made it impossible for either of them to be ignored. The continuance of misrule in France as the century went on, deepened the passion for freedom and gave new force to the sense of individual worth, irrespective of social class, which had been in large measure created by the burning eloquence of Rousseau; and the conviction steadily grew, in advance of Rousseau himself, that every person, whether rich or poor, ought to receive an education that would make the most of the powers he possessed. Side by side with this indivi- dualistic doctrine there developed a firm belief that the way of social salvation was to be found in a national education which would prepare everyone for the service of the State, The two ideals of education for manhood and education for citizenship, thus sharply opposed, continued to develop along independent lines till the attempt was made to bring them together in the educational schemes of the Revolution. 3, SENSATIONALIST VIEWS ON EDUCATION Before proceeding to follow out in detail these two tendencies in French educational thought, it will be convenient to consider some of the earlier applications of the sensationalist philosophy, characteristic of the Enlightenment, to education. And here it must first be noted that Condillac and Helvfetius, the philosophers whose work is of special moment in this connection, like others of their school, were long in developing an interest in education.